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Historic England Research Records

Cawthorn B

Hob Uid: 917038
Location :
North Yorkshire
Ryedale
Stape
Grid Ref : SE7867090180
Summary : Annexe of likely late 1st and 2nd century AD date added to the east side of Cawthorn Fort A (SE 79 SE 63). These earthworks, together with another fort and a camp, are collectively known as 'Cawthorn Camps'. The defence of Annexe B comprise an outer ditch and a rampart, although they are slighter than those of Fort A. The gates in the north and south sides have internal and external claviculae. The interior of Fort A and Annexe B is crossed by an alleged medieval trackway, the 'Portergate' or 'Rogergate' (SE 78 NE 17).Within both Fort A and Annexe B numerous embanked features are evident. The remains are probably best preserved in Annexe B which contains the remains of a system of streets bordered with enclosures/buildings located in its eastern half. The remanents of a similar but much fragmented system is also visible in its north-eastern corner. A band of enclosures of slightly different form and pattern is visible in the south-western quadrant the annexe. These enclosures bear a resemblance to those located up the central spine of Camp C. In 1999-2000 three trenches investigated embanked structures in the interior of Fort A and Annexe B. These found evidence for multi-phase buildings and streets. The limited finds evidence, comprising pottery and glass melon beads, indicate a Roman date for these features at least. Re-excavation in 1999 of one of the 1920s trenches confirmed the presence of a probable sunken featured building or grubenhaus located on the eastern rampart of Fort A/western rampart of Annexe B. Other depressions across Fort A, also Annexe B, now require investigation as further examples of SFBs. Photographs taken in 1925 of the 1920s excavations undertaken by Simpson, Kirk and Richmond, have allowed for the identification of many extant earthworks on site as remains of 1920s trenches and spoil heaps.
More information : This camp has been re-assessed in connection with RCHME's survey and publication of Roman Camps in England. The following descriptiveaccount is taken from the published text. Previously recorded with SE 79 SE 45; now assigned unique identity.
SE 7867 9018 (FCE). Earthwork annexe added to the E side of Cawthorn fort A.
The earthworks consist of four major elements. A camp, C, of unusual polygonal design, is partly overlain by a slightly later fort, D, which is probably datable to the late 1st century (NAR SE 79 SE 45; Jones 1975, 140-1 (1a)). To the E of the camp are two structures which have often been classified as camps; on balance, however, the more westerly of the two is best regarded as a fort, A, which was subsequently provided with an annexe on its E side, thus forming a much larger defended area, B.
The earthworks were excavated between 1923 and 1929 (Simpson 1926 (1b); Richmond 1926 (1c); 1929 (1d); 1932 (1e)). The identifying letters A-D usually ascribed to the earthworks are retained here, but most of the highly speculative functions and relationships put forward by Richmond have now been discarded. Certainly there seems no be no overriding reason to consider the sites as practice works. The few finds suggested that occupation may not have continued later than c AD 120.
The annexe, much more like a camp in character, is laid out on an irregular subrectangular plan. This is especially marked on the N where the defences were set along the natural crest; they had to be realigned at the gate on that side in order to take account of a re-entrant valley which provides access down the escarpment. The bank stands up to 0.7 m high internally and was found to be constructed of turf; the ditch was 8ft 9 in (2.7 m) wide and 3ft 9 in (1.1 m) deep
(Richmond 1932, 52 (see auth 1e)). A counterscarp bank, now no more than 0.4 m high, was provided throughout. These defences are altogether slighter than those of the fort. The two gates, on the N and S, are protected by internal and external claviculae and are offset to the W, confirming that the internal layout was focused on fort A. No gate was provided in the rear, E, rampart. Full information is included in the NMR Archive. (1)

An air photographic evaluation (2-3) was undertaken by the EH Aerial Survey section, in conjunction with the Metric Survey section, as part of a wider research project investigating Cawthorn Camps from 1998-2002. In addition to the air photographic work, this research has included geophysical survey, topographic survey of Fort A and Annexe B, and two seasons of excavation. (4-5)

Photogrammetric survey using specially commissioned, large scale air photographs has enabled the production of a detailed plan of the earthwork remains at a scale of 1:500 and an accuracy of 10cm or below. Rectification of this plan with other photographs for the site has enabled further interpretation of the earthworks. In particular, use of photographs taken in 1925 of the excavations undertaken by Simpson, Kirk and Richmond in the 1920s (see sources 1b-1e), has enabled the positive identification of many extant earthworks on site as remains of the 1920s trenches and spoil heaps. These excavations were particularly extensive in Fort A and Annexe B. Similarly, features attributable to World War II activity have been identified from photographs dating to 1945 and 1946, including ordnance craters in Fort A and Annexe B. New earthwork features, some as little as 10cm in height, have been recorded in the interior of the forts, camp and annexe. Within both Fort A and Annexe B numerous embanked features are evident. The remains are probably best preserved in Annexe B which contains the remains of a system of streets bordered with enclosures/buildings located in its eastern half. The remanents of a similar but much fragmented system have now been identified in its north-eastern corner. A band of enclosures of slightly different form and pattern is visible in the south-western quadrant of the annexe; these enclosures bear a resemblance to those located up the central spine of Camp C. Many of the internal embanked features in Fort A and Annexe B are tentatively thought to be of one general phase and possibly contemporary with the main defences. This theory is based on observations on form, alignment and condition of features. The limited excavated evidence, described below, indicates a Roman date for these. (3)

However, the date of many of the interior earthworks is yet to be proven. Richmond (source 1e) considered them to be Roman in date, military in nature and contemporary with the main defensive earthworks. More recent research (6-7) has proposed a post-Roman date for some of the features, in particular, the system of streets and enclosures in the south-east of Annexe B, also certain of the pits excavated by Richmond which he termed as 'officers' dugouts'; these latter features are now considered to represent possible sunken featured buildings of early medieval date.

The excavations undertaken in 1999-2000 by Dr P.Wilson (EH) comprised ten trenches three of which investigated turf structures in the interiors of Annexe B and Fort A. These found evidence for multi-phase buildings and streets. One of the trenches in Annexe B produced an archaeo-magnetic date of late 1st and early 2nd century AD. For the other two trenches, the limited finds evidence, comprising pottery and glass melon beads, also indicate a Roman date. A trench located across the defences of the east side of Fort A and west side of Annexe B also included the re-excavation of one of Richmond's 'dugouts' located on the top of the rampart; this is now proven to be a probable early medieval sunken featured building as suspected. Further depressions across Fort A and Annexe B, highlighted by the air photograph plotting, now require investigation as other potential SFBs. (8-9)



Sources :
Source Number : 1
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Humphrey Welfare and Vivien Swan/1994/RCHME: Roman Camps in England Project.
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Source Number : 1a
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Jones, M J. 1975. Roman fort-defences to AD 117. BAR Brit Ser 21. Oxford (reprinted 1977).
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Source Number : 6
Source : The Archaeological Journal
Source details : Lee, G. 1997. 'Cawthorn Roman Military Complex'
Page(s) : 260-7
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Vol(s) : 54
Source Number : 7
Source : Annexe B, Cawthorn Camps, Pickering, North Yorkshire : earthwork survey, interim report
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Source Number : 8
Source : Ryedale historian
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 2000-1. 'Cawthorn Camps; Trial Excavations 1999'
Page(s) : 05-Aug
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Vol(s) : 20
Source Number : 9
Source : Ryedale historian
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 2002-4. 'Cawthorn Camps 2000 - Interim Report'
Page(s) : 30-Mar
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Vol(s) : 21
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Source : Cawthorn/profiles key
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Source : Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire: Air Photograph Evaluation
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Source : Cawthorn, Roman outwork, tribunal in Fort A, tent-lines in Camp B/profiles
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Source : Cawthorn, Camp B and Fort A/profiles
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Source : Cawthorn, 1975-77/pencil survey
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Source : Cawthorn, 1975-77, eastern part detail/pencil survey
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Source Number : 1b
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Simpson, F G 1926. 'The Roman camps at Cawthorn, near Pickering'. Yorkshire Archaeol J 28 (1925-6) 25-33
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Source : Cawthorn/contour survey
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Source : Cawthorn, 1975-77/ink survey
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Source Number : 1c
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Richmond, I A. 1926. `The Roman camps at Cawthorn, near Pickering'. Yorkshire Archaeol J 28 (1925-6), 332-9, 421-6.
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Source Number : 1d
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Richmond, I A. 1929. `The Roman camps at Cawthorn, near Pickering'. Yorkshire Archaeol J 29 (1927-9), 90-6, 225-31, 327-31.
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Source Number : 1e
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Richmond, I A. 1932. `The four Roman camps at Cawthorn, in the North Riding of Yorkshire'. Archaeol J 89, 17-78.
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Source Number : 2
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Stone, J. 1999. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Air Photograph Evaluation' (Phase I)
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Source Number : 3
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Stone, J. 2002. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Air Photograph Evaluation' (Phase II)
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Source Number : 4
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 1999. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Project Design for Trial Excavations'
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Source Number : 5
Source : VIRTUAL CATALOGUE ENTRY TO SUPPORT NAR MIGRATION
Source details : Wilson, P. and Lee, G. 2000. 'Cawthorn Camps, North Yorkshire. Assessment and Revised project Design'
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Monument Types:
Monument Period Name : Roman
Display Date : Roman
Monument End Date : 410
Monument Start Date : 43
Monument Type : Fort Annexe, Road, Building
Evidence : Earthwork

Components and Objects:
Related Records from other datasets:
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (County No.)
External Cross Reference Number : NY 518
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : Scheduled Monument Legacy (National No.)
External Cross Reference Number : 24436
External Cross Reference Notes :
External Cross Reference Source : National Monuments Record Number
External Cross Reference Number : SE 79 SE 65
External Cross Reference Notes :

Related Warden Records :
Associated Monuments : 1012169
Relationship type : General association

Related Activities :
Associated Activities : Primary, RCHME: CAWTHORN ROMAN CAMP, FORTS AND ANNEXE
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1975-01-01
End Date : 1992-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ANNEXE B, CAWTHORN CAMPS
Activity type : MEASURED SURVEY
Start Date : 1998-01-01
End Date : 1998-12-31
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: CAWTHORN CAMPS AIR PHOTOGRAPH EVALUATION, PHASE I
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 1999-08-01
End Date : 1999-11-01
Associated Activities : Primary, ENGLISH HERITAGE: CAWTHORN CAMPS AIR PHOTOGRAPH EVALUATION, PHASE II
Activity type : AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Start Date : 2000-01-01
End Date : 2002-12-31